Australia: Conservation Strategies Climate Change Pushes Komodo Dragons to the Brink of Extinction
The world’s largest lizard, the Komodo dragon, could be driven to extinction by climate change unless significant measures to intervene are taken soon.
Adelaide/Australia — A new international study, led by the University of Adelaide and Deakin University, has found that the impact of both global warming and sea-level rise threatens the extinction of Komodo dragons, which already have restricted habitats, and this must be better incorporated into conservation strategies.
“Climate change is likely to cause a sharp decline in the availability of habitat for Komodo dragons, severely reducing their abundance in a matter of decades,” says lead author Dr Alice Jones from the University of Adelaide’s School of Biological Sciences. The scientists' models predict local extinction on three of the five island habitats where Komodo dragons are found today.
The Komodo dragon, Varanus komodoensis, is the world’s most iconic lizard species which has existed on Earth for more than a million years, but only an estimated 4000 individuals survive in the wild. They are endemic to five islands in southeast Indonesia: Komodo, Rinca, Nusa Kode and Gili Motang which are part of Komodo National Park, and Flores, the fifth and largest island which has three nature reserves. According to Dr Jones, current-day conservation strategies are not enough to avoid species decline in the face of climate change. This is because climate change would compound the negative effects of already small, isolated populations, he says. Interventions such as establishing new reserves in areas that are predicted to sustain high-quality habitats in the future, despite global warming, could work to lessen the effects of climate change on Komodo dragons.
“Using this data and knowledge in conservation models has provided a rare opportunity to understand climate change impacts on Indonesia’s exceptional but highly vulnerable biodiversity,” says co-author Dr Tim Jessop, School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Deakin University. Importantly, the research project involved close collaboration with the Komodo National Park and the Eastern Lesser Sunda Central Bureau for Conservation of Natural Resources.
“The severity and extent of human actions impacting Komodo dragon populations, especially on Flores Island, are only just being realised,” says co-author Deni Purwandana, Coordinator of the Komodo Survival Program. Having an insight into future impacts of climate change would provide new possibilities to work with conservation agencies and local communities to find on-ground solutions that would limit climate and other threats to Komodo dragons and their habitats.
The researchers say climate-change-informed decisions should be a common part of conservation practice. Their conservation models show that Komodo dragons on two protected large islands are less vulnerable to climate change. However, even these island habitats might not provide an adequate insurance policy for the survival of the species. Associate Professor Damien Fordham from the University of Adelaide’s Environment Institute points out that conservation managers in coming decades might need to consider translocating animals to sites where Komodo dragons have not been found for many decades. This scenario could be tested easily using the researchers' approach. “Our research shows that without taking immediate action to mitigate climatic change, we risk committing many range restricted species like Komodo dragons to extinction”, Fordham concludes.
References: Ecology & Evolution: Identifying island safe havens to prevent the extinction of the World’s largest lizard from global warming; Alice R. Jones, Tim S. Jessop, Achmad Ariefiandy, Barry W. Brook, Stuart C. Brown, Claudio Ciofi, Yunias Jackson Benu, Deni Purwandana, Tamen Sitorus, Tom M. L. Wigley , Damien A. Fordham